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In the last two articles, we have collected some questions about RFID and RFID chips from our readers. Today, we will continue to expound more about RFID, EMV, and NFC. To start us off, we shall define these three technologies.

What is RFID, EMV and NFC?

What is RFID?

RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification. This technology makes identification possible using radio waves. RFID cards incorporate a chip and an antenna for wireless communication and can thus be read remotely. The advantage of RFID is convenience. You do not have to remove your card from your wallet in order to pay. Paying is easier and takes lesser time. The radio waves do not penetrate through metal. This section has been explained in greater detail in the previous two articles; you can have a look if you wish to access more information.

What is EMV?

The letters EMV come from the original initiators of this technology – Europay, MasterCard, and VISA. EMV technology operates on the basis of a chip and makes the sensitive magnetic superfluous. The exchange comes about when you insert the card into a device; physical contact is required between the chip and the device.

Chip and Signature vs. Chip and PIN

There are two different implementations of EMV technology: One is called Chip and Signature, while the other is called Chip and PIN. The vast majority of EMV cards issued in the United States use Chip and Signature, which (as the name implies) still requires a signature at the point of sale (when the card is present). Chip and PIN cards are compatible with terminals that require a PIN number, which is often the case at unattended kiosks in Europe and elsewhere. Locations that require Chip and PIN equipped cards include train stations, toll booths, and gas stations.

Why is EMV so Important?

The reason is security. In the aftermath of so many high profile security breaches at major retailers, the recent move to EMV enabled cards can’t come soon enough. When a retailer is hacked, or when credit card numbers are stolen by other means, criminals can easily encode this information onto another credit card’s magnetic strip, a process called cloning. And one of the easiest ways to acquire credit card numbers is to use a magnetic card reader, either when your card is out of your hands, or by affixing a card reading device to a gas pump or ATM, a process called skimming. With the EMV chip system, skimming and cloning cards become vastly more difficult (though not impossible).

Near Field Communication or NFC is a wireless method of communication. NFC is a set of standards for portable devices. It allows them to establish peer-to-peer radio communications, passing data from one device to another by touching them or putting them very close together.  NFC generally has a range of about 10 centimeters. NFC is also viewed as an extension of radio frequency identification (RFID). The technical principle of NFC cards is, as far as we can tell, identical to that of RFID cards.

NFC was formed out of RFID. RFID. Radio-frequency identification, is the technology used by shipping companies, in large warehouses, and in superstores to keep track of goods. It uses electromagnetic induction in order to transmit information over a short space so that by simply scanning a container a staff member can know what it contains. NFC is similar technology, but standardized for consumer smartphones. NFC standards are defined by a group called the NFC Forum, which includes Nokia, Sony, and Philips. In essence, if your phone has NFC as a feature it can be used to transfer data to other phones or to NFC readers.

Is EMV The Same As RFID?

Nope.An RFID card transmits credit card information through radio waves from a chip embedded in your card. If you are using a card with an RFID chip, and your merchant has a compatible reader, you don’t have to swipe your card when making a purchase. You just hold your card inches from the scanner and voila! Your sale is transmitted. But the EMV chip requires contact.

Is RFID and NFC the same?

NFC is used in contactless payment cardsthough somewhat confusingly, these cards are often referred to as RFID cards.

“RFID is a similar chip type product that sends a signal out — a radio frequency signal,” Givens says.

RFID is actually the predecessor to NFC and a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to identify people or objects. It also refers to the long-range communication technology that’s used in, for example, highway toll payment devices.

NFC, on its part, is a type of RFID that requires you to be within inches of the card reader, so fraudsters cannot skim your information easily. Still, as the use of NFC-enabled mobile payments grows, even as contactless payment cards keep being phased out.

Even as our cards get more sophisticated and harder to duplicate, Givens warns they’re still vulnerable to hackers when you shop online — and that’s the next obstacle credit card companies are working on.

Can NFC be used as RFID?

Most of the NFC enabled Android phones have the low-level capacity to emulate cards. The NXP chip is used in the phones as well as the android kernel supports card emulation. However, the high-level Android API does not expose these features most likely because of some obvious security problems with such a feature. To be able to read existing cards and emulate them would make it possible to easily duplicate access cards and other RFID/NFC tags and even some smart cards. This is already possible with the right equipment but to put that capability in the hands of every person with an Android phone might upset entire industries. For example, all physical access control systems rely on cards that could easily be duplicated by using an android phone. I think this feature shouldn’t be there because enabling it would cause a HUGE upset in multiple industries.

Do EMV cards use RFID?

Nope. EMV chip requires contact. Maybe your bank decided to use both technologies and your card has NFC also, but it is just the same: there is no risk in the information you can gather with a NFC scanner. It’s equivalent to physically looking at your card.

You might want to have a blocking wallet if your card is EMV+NFC. A “simple” EMV card is not legible remotely, and only needs to be inserted in a card reader.

If your card is EMV *plus* NFC it might be readable remotely, meaning in this case by touching it (maybe 1-2 centimeters). You must consider if it is feasible that someone touches your card or checkbook wallet with an NFC reader/mobile phone without you noticing.

Anyway, the information that it can be obtained will be, most probably, very limited. EMV chip hosts the really important data and transaction abilities, e.g., your PIN or the signature functionality.

What info you can obtain varies, in my experience, with the actual implementation of the card. I’ve seen, from a list of latest transactions, with amount of money, date… to just info about the hardware and data coding.

What’s the Difference between EMV and NFC?

The two buzzwords (or rather acronyms) you’ll hear consistently in discussions about chip credit cards and phone payments are EMV and NFC. EMV stands for Europay, MasterCard, Visa, and is a security standard for the chips embedded in credit cards vs the magnetic strip. NFC stands for near-field communications and is the technology that allows data to be read by compatible machines without contact.

Although NFC is most often associated with mobile phone payments and EMV is most often associated with chipped cards, both technologies can actually be used in both payment options. The NFC chip in mobile phones can also be used for contactless chip cards, and the encryption that protects payment information on both is the EMV standard.

Many newer terminals can now accept both NFC and EMV payments, but it’s important to note that some machines only take one or the other. Square, for example, has a mobile credit card reader that accepts magnetic stripe cards and EMV cards, but not NFC payments. (An NFC/EMV reader is available, but it doesn’t take traditional magnetic stripe cards.)

Both EMV and NFC payment methods are more secure than an unencrypted magnetic strip, but only EMV cards are subject to the fraud liability shift that went into effect in October of 2015. Businesses that don’t have an EMV compliant machine are liable for fraudulent transactions made with EMV chip cards. There are currently no repercussions for not accepting NFC payments like Apple Pay.

After reading these, something about RFID, EMV and NFC you must have a good understanding. Hope it help you and if you like it, please share it with your friends.Thanks!

From the last article, we collected some questions relating to RFID technology and how it works. Here is the relevant information regarding RFID chips and the technology embedded in them;

1. What is an RFID chip and an RFID-enabled credit card?

As you use your credit cards, do you check whether they are chip credit cards or not? Probably, most of you don’t recognize that there is an RFID chip in your credit cards. Here’s a short chronology of what a chip credit card is; Briefly, an RFID chip is another term used to define an RFID tag. It is a tag, label or card that can exchange data with a reader using radio frequency (RF) signals. It usually has a built-in antenna and an integrated circuit IC. The antenna can send and receive radio waves, while the IC takes care of modulating and demodulating the radio signals, as well as processing and storing data. Also, unlike a bar code reader/label pair, which has to be really close (about a few centimeters), some RFID reader/chip pairs can function from a few meters out. Furthermore, while a bar code label can only be read by a single reader at a time, an RFID chip can transmit data to multiple readers simultaneously.RFID-enabled cards, they are standard-sized plastic debit or credit card that contains an embedded microchip as well as a traditional magnetic stripe. The chip encrypts information to help increase data security when making transactions at terminals or ATMs that are chip-enabled.

2.When was the RFID chip invented?

When it comes to RFID chip’s history, a full comprehension calls for an explanation surpassing several sentences. Here, we’ve picked the main progress to explain to you as succinctly as possible;

In the late 1940’s:

Radar technology was first used to distinguish between enemy and friendly aircraft. Technically this was the first used to RFID

In 1948:

A scientist and inventor Harry Stockman created RFID and was credited with the futuristic invention. He also wrote a famous scholarly article about this new technology entitled, “Communication by Means of Reflected Power”

In the 1950’s:

During this decade, scientists explored the possibilities of advancing Radio Frequency Identification. This new technology was intriguing and people wanted to see what else could possibly come out of it. Also, inventor DB Harris created a different variation of the technology with a passive responding chip.

In 1959:

The IFF long-range RFID system became fully functional and production commenced soon after.

RFID tags were invented in1969 and later patented in 1973; it’s only now that they’re becoming commercially and technologically viable, with microchips growing essentially tinier and better. Some are only 1/3 of a millimeter across. These chips act as transponders (transmitters/responders), always listening for a radio signal sent by transceivers or RFID readers.

When a transponder receives a certain radio query, it responds by transmitting its unique ID code, perhaps a 128-bit number, back to the transceiver. Most RFID tags don’t have batteries (How could they? They’re 1/3 of a millimeter!). Instead, they are powered by the radio signal which wakes them up requesting an answer.

3. Who invented RFID chips and how are RFID chips used?

Charlie Walton, the inventor of a ubiquitous wireless technology known as RFID, lived in Los Gatos. The chips that he invented can go into the access controls of devices, allowing you to slap a badge across a reader to open the door to an office for instance. They are also used in car locks and on shipping pallets so that companies can track expensive goods. Also, the chips are used in;

• Access control

• Car immobilization

• Electronic toll collection

• Electronic document identification

• Dog tags• Asset management

• Baggage handling

• Cargo tracking

• Contactless payments and ticketing

• Supply chain management

4.How does the chip on credit cards work?

We can know that an RFID chip is another term used to define an RFID tag. How does the chip work? First, we need to know about the functional principle of RFID tags.

In the last article, we introduced that RFID is an acronym for “radio-frequency identification” and refers to a technology whereby digital data encoded in RFID tags or smart labels (defined below) are captured by a reader via radio waves. RFID is similar to bar-coding where data from a tag or label is captured by a device that stores it in a database.

RFID methods utilize radio waves to accomplish this. At a simple level, RFID systems consist of three components: an RFID tag or smart label, an RFID reader, and an antenna. RFID tags contain an integrated circuit and an antenna used to transmit data to the RFID reader (also called an interrogator). The reader then converts the radio waves to a more usable form of data. Information collected from the tags is then transferred through a communications interface to a host computer system, where the data can be stored in a database and analyzed at a later time.

Every credit card holder in America knows the “swipe and sign” checkout ritual. With chip and PIN cards, the credit card data is stored on a tiny computer chip — not a magnetic stripe — and customers punch in a four-digit PIN (personal identification number) instead of signing the screen.

5.Do I have an RFID credit card?

According to the latest estimates, more than 1 billion credit cards and IDs have been released with an RFID chip in the recent past. But how do you know whether your credit card has RFID or not?

To find out whether a credit card has an RFID chip, you can look at the card to tell if it does or not. If you see the marked symbol on the image below, it supports RFID. Also, if the card says PayPass, payWave, or blink, it also has RFID capabilities.

6.How far can an RFID chip transmit?

Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Passive RFID Tags or chips- minimum read distance of over 1 meter or 3 feet. Gen2 tags can have a read range of up to 12 meters or 37 feet, however, a new generation of IC’s plus antenna designs are now pushing this distance to over 15 meters! And what’s the Maximum Range?

Even within one type of RFID, however, there can be a wide array of reading ranges. A passive ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) handheld reader has a range of about 10 feet, while a model using a beam-steerable phased-array antenna can interrogate passive tags at a distance of 600 feet or more.

7. Can you track an RFID chip?

The answer is yes. But it has limitation. Most countries have assigned the 125 or 134 kHz areas of the spectrum for low-frequency RFID systems, and 13.56 MHz is generally used around the world for high-frequency RFID systems. UHF RFID systems have only been around since the mid-1990s and countries have not agreed on a single area of the UHF spectrum for RFID.

Since most RFID chips or tags are passive, meaning they contain no battery power and can transmit data only when zapped with a reader. A group of hackers at the 2005 DefCon technology convention in Las Vegas, Nevada, used an antenna attached to an RFID reader to scan the information on a tag nearly 70 feet away. In this distance and appropriate frequency range, absolutely you can track an RFID chip.

8.Do US passports have RFID chip and protection?

Since August 2007, all U.S. passports have come embedded with an RFID chip, intended to deter fraud and improve security. The chip contains the same information as on the passport’s picture page, including a digital version of your passport photograph. (You can still use a pre-2007 passport that doesn’t contain a chip. Once your passport expires, a new one will contain an RFID chip.)

According to the federal Bureau of Consular Affairs, the passport chip is designed with security features to thwart unauthorized access. Also, it can be “read” only when the passport book is open. When the cover is shut, the information on the chip supposedly can’t be scanned by an RFID device.

Separately, a newer U.S. travel document, a wallet-sized passport card, also has a chip. It contains only an identification number, not personal information from the card itself. However, “To address concerns that passport card bearers can be tracked by this technology,” the consular bureau’s website says, “We are requiring that the vendor provide a sleeve that will prevent the (passport) card from being read while inside it.”

9.How are RFID Chips Blocked/Killed

Luckily RFID tag signals can easily be blocked. This means that you will have the option to use the tag whenever you want, and prevent others from being able to read it.

The signal sent out by an RFID tag is easily blocked by metal. This means that placing the RFID tag inside of a Faraday cage will prevent the information from being read.
There are already two Instructables on how to build RFID blocking containers:

RFID Secure Wallet

Make an RFID Shielding Pouch Out of Trash

Alternatively, if you would rather spend money on something you could build, head over to Think Geek for their RFID blocking wallet and RFID blocking Passport Holder.


After reading this article, are you getting familiar with RFID chips and technology? If you require any further guidance, we implore you to get in touch with us; you will be attended to right away.  If you think it’s useful for you, please share it with your friends. Thanks!

Nowadays, the global is becoming a village. We can do many things easier and more quickly. Technology brings us the benefits and we can’t live without it. Here, we choose RFID as an example to tell you that something you need to know about. 7 frequently asked questions are gathered about RFID for you, to help you know what this technology is and how it changed our life.

1.What does RFID stand for?

RFID (radio frequency identification) is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person. RFID is coming into increasing use in industry as an alternative to the bar code.

2.What does an RFID system consist of?

An RFID system consists of three components: an antenna and transceiver  (often combined into one reader) and a transponder (the tag). The antenna uses radio frequency waves to transmit a signal that activates the transponder. When activated, the tag transmits data back to the antenna. The data is used to notify a programmable logic controller that an action should occur. The action could be as simple as raising an access gate or as complicated as interfacing with a database to carry out a monetary transaction. Low-frequency RFID systems (30 KHZ to 500 KHz) have short transmission ranges (generally less than six feet). High-frequency RFID systems (850 MHz to 950 MHZ and 2.4 GHz to 2.5 GHz) offer longer transmission ranges (more than 90 feet).

RFID systems can also be classified by the type of tag and reader. A Passive Reader Active Tag (PRAT) system has a passive reader which only receives radio signals from active tags (battery operated, transmit only). The reception range of a PRAT system reader can be adjusted from 1–2,000 feet (0–600 m), allowing flexibility in applications such as asset protection and supervision.

An Active Reader Passive Tag (ARPT) system has an active reader, which transmits interrogator signals and also receives authentication replies from passive tags.

An Active Reader Active Tag (ARAT) system uses active tags awoken with an interrogator signal from the active reader. A variation of this system could also use a Battery-Assisted Passive (BAP) tag which acts like a passive tag but has a small battery to power the tag’s return reporting signal.

3.What is the use of RFID?

RFID has many uses in our daily life, which spreads in commerce, transportation and logistics, public transport and so on. It appears with a look of tags, readers.

What is an RFID tag?

The RFID tag has an embedded transmitter and receiver. The actual RFID component contained in a tag has two parts: an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, and an antenna to receive and transmit a signal. The RFID tag has non-volatile memory storage and can include either fixed or programmable logic for processing transmission and sensor data.

RFID tags can be either passive, active or battery-assisted passive. An active tag has an on-board battery and periodically transmits its ID signal. A battery-assisted passive (BAP) has a small battery on board and is activated when in the presence of an RFID reader. A passive tag is cheaper and smaller because it has no battery; instead, the tag uses the radio energy transmitted by the reader.

RFID tags contain at least three parts: an integrated circuit for storing and processing information that modulates and demodulates a radio- frequency (RF) signals; a means of collecting DC power from the incident reader signal; and an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. The tag information is stored in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag includes either fixed or programmable logic for processing the transmission and sensor data, respectively.

Tag’s uses

Tags may either be read-only, having a factory-assigned serial number that is used as a key into a database or may be read/write, where object-specific data can be written into the tag by the system user. Field programmable tags may be write-once, read-multiple; “blank” tags may be written with an electronic product code by the user.

The RFID tag can be affixed to an object and used to track and manage inventory, assets, people, etc. For example, it can be affixed to cars, computer equipment, books, mobile phones, etc.

What is the RFID reader?

An RFID reader’s function is to interrogate RFID tags. The means of interrogation is wireless and because the distance is relatively short; the line of sight between the reader and tags is not necessary. A reader contains an RF module, which acts as both a transmitter and receiver of radio frequency signals. The transmitter consists of an oscillator to create the carrier frequency; a modulator to impinge data commands upon this carrier signal and an amplifier to boost the signal enough to awaken the tag. The receiver has a demodulator to extract the returned data and also contains an amplifier to strengthen the signal for processing. A microprocessor forms the control unit, which employs an operating system and memory to filter and store the data. The data is now ready to be sent to the network.

Reader’s uses

A radio frequency identification reader (RFID reader) is a device used to gather information from an RFID tag, which is used to track individual objects. Radio waves are used to transfer data from the tag to a reader.

RFID’s uses

RFID offers advantages over manual systems or use of bar codes. The tag can be read if passed near a reader, even if it is covered by the object or not visible. The tag can be read inside a case, carton, box or other containers, and unlike barcodes, RFID tags can be read hundreds at a time. Bar codes can only be read one at a time using current devices.

RFID can be used in a variety of applications, such as:

  • Tracking of goods
  • Tracking of persons and animals
  • Toll collection and contactless payment
  • Machine-readable travel documents
  • Smartdust(for massively distributed sensor networks)
  • Airport baggage tracking logistics
  • Timing sporting events
  • Tracking and billing processes

These applications play an important role in our daily life. For example, when buying goods,  you can use it to pay and to track the shipment. Memorize the data and track it is the way to serve you to have a good experience.

4.What is RFID skimming?

Although RFID is helpful, not every successful reading of a tag (an observation) is useful for business or other purposes. Even it shows amount of data breach cases are increasing. The criminal behavior is called RFID skimming. Then what is RFID skimming? Let us tell you.

RFID skimming is a form of digital theft, which enables information from RFID based smart cards to be read and duplicated. It can be used as a form of wireless identity theft or credit card theft among other forms of information theft. Typically it works by the illegitimate reading of RFID chips at a distance using an RFID reader device, which downloads the card information.

The concern is that some credit cards, passports, and driver’s licenses now come with embedded radio frequency identification chips. When activated by an RFID reader, these chips transmit certain types of information wirelessly, so that you can verify your identity or even make a purchase without swiping your card. The downside: Anyone with an RFID reader can activate those chips and pick up whatever information they’re designed to transmit. And, if they’re sneaky about it, they can do it without your knowledge.
So, what can we do to protect our data from being scanned? There are many methods to solve this problem. But one is the most common and easiest— use the RFID blocking technology.We will tell you what RFID blocking technology and materials is and how it works for you as follows.

5.What is RFID blocking technology and material?

First, we need to know what the RFID blocking is. RFID blocking is a form of passive shielding of RFID signals through either a metallic encased wallet or a passive lined material RFID blocking wallet or RFID blocking sleeve like most you see on the market currently.

In fact, RFID blocking’s principle is using material to impede the signal. There are three primary methods—shielding, shielded containers, metal foil. Shielding attempts to block radio signals from reaching the tag by enclosing it within a container made of material that blocks electromagnetic signals in the RFID spectrum by acting as a Faraday cage. Shielded containers for regular use in the form of single-document sleeves, wallets, pouches, etc. Shielding is possible simply and inexpensively by wrapping a tagged object in aluminum foil, which can be configured as a sleeve permitting a card to be slid out. Informal tests found that the shielding effect was not 100% effective, though it did very much reduce the maximum range for reading, from about 1.5 feet (50 cm) to 1–2 inches (3–5 cm).

There are two materials which impede Radio Signals with incredible success… Water & Metal. Although you could fill a bag full of water and place your money, wallet, or whatever else in it, let’s continue with the metal route. A single layer of aluminum foil of only 27 microns thick is often enough to block the RFID signals of most readers or 1mm of dilute salt water. So…many RFID wallet was designed with aluminum foil embedded inside compared with water for its convenience.

6.How does an RFID wallet work?

Usually, we purchase RFID wallet to protect our information for its easy usage and convenience. Maybe many people don’t have a clear mind of this new kind of wallet.

RFID-blocking wallets are designed to help insulate you from a very particular brand of electronic pickpocketing, called RFID skimming. Now, almost cards have RFID chips in it. In 1979, the first radio frequency identification chips that can be implanted into other things are created. It has been spreading all around the world in the past decades. Now, they are everywhere in our life. How do the chips work?

They work by using radio waves to communicate. The object, such as a credit card, contains an RFID tag with information, and an RFID reader uses radio waves to read the information from a tag. The key is that RFID chips have tiny electromagnetic fields, which is what makes them possible to read without having to “initiate” communications. All you need is proximity.

That’s the reason why, in theory, that somebody could scan you through your pocket. And yes, people in the real world have been scanned like this.

Fortunately, radio waves are relatively easy to interrupt and block, and that’s how an RFID-blocking wallet works: they encase your credit cards in a material that interferes with radio waves. If the wallet is properly constructed to be a Faraday cage, it will block all electromagnetic fields and prevent communication between your cards and RFID scanners.

7.Do you actually need an RFID-blocking wallet?

Maybe, maybe not. If your credit cards don’t have RFID chips, then obviously you don’t need one. And even if you do have RFID-chipped cards, the chance of being maliciously scanned is exceedingly low — less than 1 percent according to some. On the other hand, the possibility is there and the chance is non-zero.


After reading these frequency asked questions about RFID, I guess you have known the fundamental knowledge. Other information about RFID will be updated soon. If you think it’s useful for you, please share it with your friends. Thanks!

If you’ve been wondering what all the talk about an RFID blocking wallet is and why you would need one, this post will help clear things up for you a bit. Radio Frequency Identification or RFID technology is rapidly becoming the norm for cashless transactions around the world, with almost all new debit and credit cards now using this technology. These cards, while fantastic for contactless shopping, are also easy targets for RFID skimming.

RFID skimming is a process in which criminals can steal your card details just by standing close to you. They can install a card reading device at the ATM or even commit this fraud at filling stations, bars, restaurants or any public place really. Once they have your information, they can duplicate or clone your card and spend a lot of money before you even find out. If you have an RFID enabled card in your wallet, you are very much vulnerable to RFID theft and an RFID blocking wallet is your only way to safeguarding your information.

Apart from all the biggest data breaches that happened across world, card fraud has been a major threat for a long time now and with the addition of contactless cards, the problem is only set to increase. Putting together a card-reading device is cheap and easy. Criminals can even simply download an app on their phone that does the work for them. In short, your data is at risk pretty much all the time.

RFID blocking wallets insulate your card from these electromagnetic reading devices and make your card safe against RFID skimming and data theft. Check out this infographic to know a whole lot more about how to protect yourself from these malicious threats.Here we gathered 5 essential points you need to know about RFID and RFID skimming for you:

[infographic] Understanding RFID Skimming: It's Time Block your personal data breach

Courtesy of: Bricraft

If you like our post ,you can paste code on your post.

<div style="clear: both;"><a href=""><img style="max-width: 100%; height: auto;" title="[infographic] Understanding RFID Skimming: It's Time Block your personal data breach" src="" alt="[infographic] Understanding RFID Skimming: It's Time Block your personal data breach" align="center" border="0" /></a></div><p></p> <div>Courtesy of: <a href="">Bricraft</a></div>

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